Failed states index definition

Highlights of the Index. Fragile States Index Launch Event. X1: External Intervention. Facebook Twitter Instagram. Fragility in the World But broadly speaking, over the long-term, the world is becoming steadily less fragile. It often takes cold, hard data — like that produced by the FSI — to demonstrate that for all the negative press, there is significant progress occurring in the background. Messner de Latour, Executive Director. The most-worsened country in the Fragile States Index is Chile, a remarkable turnaround for a country that had otherwise been demonstrating steady gains to previously rank within the 30 most stable countries on the Index.

The most-improved country in is the Maldives, which continued a long-term trend of near-constant improvement that has seen the country move from being ranked 66th in when it was first included in the FSI to 99th in Three countries — Sudan, Iraq, and Kenya — tied for second most improved country inall improving from previous bouts of conflict, instability, and repression.

This year, Yemen claimed the top position for the second time as a result of its continuing civil war and humanitarian catastrophe. The Fund for Peace, with our media partner The New Humanitarian, held a global virtual event Wednesday, May 13 that brought together leading experts on issues of fragility and resilience to discuss how societies can emerge from the COVID crisis stronger and more resilient with the right policy approaches.

The event was be held in conjunction with — and informed by — the launch of the Fragile States Index, a data-based policy tool that has for 16 years been a leading measure of political, social, and economic pressures of countries.

Click Here to learn more. Among the most improved countries are some that continue to be restrictive, autocratic, and subject to closed civic space. Over the long-term, former Soviet states continue to dominate the list of most-improved countries, with Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan all ranking among the Top Also among the Top 20 are post-conflict countries, such as Colombia and Sri Lanka.

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Always Look on the Bright Side Despite the constant incremental progress demonstrated by the majority of countries on the FSI, several countries have nevertheless stood …. Our Partner Coverage. Ten Humanitarian Crises and Trends to Watch in These 10 crises and trends will help shape our coverage in Support Our Work. The Fragile States Index is supported by the generous contributions of people just like you.

We provide our data -- now with 15 years' worth of trend data -- free of charge. Will you consider becoming one of our supporters, to ensure that our work can continue? Your contribution to Fund for Peace goes a long way. As a small organization, we operate with minimal overhead and administration. By supporting Fund for Peace, you will be helping to support better informed and resourced responses to conflict.

You will be helping to build the capacity of local communities in addressing their own challenges.A failed state is a political body that has disintegrated to a point where basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government no longer function properly see also fragile state and state collapse.

A state can also fail if the government loses its legitimacy even if it is performing its functions properly. For a stable state it is necessary for the government to enjoy both effectiveness and legitimacy.

Likewise, when a nation weakens and its standard of living declines, it introduces the possibility of total governmental collapse. The Fund for Peace characterizes a failed state as having the following characteristics:. Common characteristics of a failing state include a central government so weak or ineffective that it has an inability to raise taxes or other support, and has little practical control over much of its territory and hence there is a non-provision of public services.

When this happens, widespread corruption and criminality, the intervention of state and non-state actorsthe appearance of refugees and the involuntary movement of populations, sharp economic decline, and military intervention from both within and without the state in question can occur. Metrics have been developed to describe the level of governance of states.

The precise level of government control required to avoid being considered a failed state varies considerably amongst authorities. According to the political theories of Max Webera state is defined as maintaining a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force within its borders.

When this is broken e. The difficulty of determining whether a government maintains "a monopoly on the legitimate use of force", which includes the problems of the definition of "legitimate", means it is not clear precisely when a state can be said to have "failed". The problem of legitimacy can be solved by understanding what Weber intended by it.

Weber explains that only the state has the means of production necessary for physical violence. This means that the state does not require legitimacy for achieving monopoly on having the means of violence de factobut will need one if it needs to use it de jure.

Typically, the term means that the state has been rendered ineffective and is not able to enforce its laws uniformly or provide basic goods and services to its citizens because of variously high crime rates, insurgencyextreme political corruptionan impenetrable and ineffective bureaucracy, judicial ineffectiveness, military interference in politics, and cultural situations in which traditional leaders wield more power than the state over a certain area.

Other factors of perception may be involved. A derived concept of "failed cities" has also been launched, based on the notion that while a state may function in general, polities at the substate level may collapse in terms of infrastructure, economy and social policy. Certain areas or cities may even fall outside state control, becoming a de facto ungoverned part of the state. There is no real consensus on the definition of a "failed state"; the subjective nature of indicators that are used to measure state failure have led to an ambiguous understanding of the term.

Other indices such as the Fund for Peace's Fragile States Index underline the democratic character of state institutions in order to determine its level of failure. Bates refers to state failure as the "implosion of the state", where the state transforms "into an instrument of predation" and the state effectively loses its monopoly on the means of force. As part of the debate about the state failure definition, Charles T.

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Call attempts to abandon the concept of state failure altogether; as, he argues, it promotes an unclear understanding of what state failure means. This framework builds on his previous criticisms of 'state failure', as a concept used as a catch-all term for diverse states with varying problems and as a base and explanation for universal policy prescriptions.

Instead of attempting to quantify the degree of failure of a state, the gap framework provides a three-dimensional scope useful to analyse the interplay between the government and the society in states in a more analytical way. Call does not necessarily suggest that states that suffer from the challenges of the three gaps should be identified as failed states; but instead, presents the gap idea as an alternative to the state failure concept as a whole.

Jennings who, drawing on five case studies—Afghanistan, Somalia, Liberia, Sudan, and the Niger Delta region of Nigeria—argue that "the use of the 'failed state' label is inherently political, and based primarily on Western perceptions of Western security and interests".

failed states index definition

In fact, "this feature of state functioning is not only accepted, but also to a certain degree facilitated, as it creates an enabling environment for business and international capital. These cases are not branded 'failed states'". The measurement methods of state failure are generally divided into the quantitative and the qualitative approach. Quantitative measurement of state failure means the creation of indexes and rankings State Fragility Index SFI are particularly important.

However, a number of other indexes are generally used to describe state weakness, often focusing on the developmental level of the state. The Index categorizes states in four categories, with variations in each category.Failed statea state that is unable to perform the two fundamental functions of the sovereign nation-state in the modern world system: it cannot project authority over its territory and peoples, and it cannot protect its national boundaries.

The governing capacity of a failed state is attenuated such that it is unable to fulfill the administrative and organizational tasks required to control people and resources and can provide only minimal public services. Its citizens no longer believe that their government is legitimateand the state becomes illegitimate in the eyes of the international community. A failed state is composed of feeble and flawed institutions.

Often, the executive barely functions, while the legislaturejudiciarybureaucracyand armed forces have lost their capacity and professional independence. A failed state suffers from crumbling infrastructuresfaltering utility supplies and educational and health facilities, and deteriorating basic human-development indicators, such as infant mortality and literacy rates. Failed states create an environment of flourishing corruption and negative growth rates, where honest economic activity cannot flourish.

The dynamics leading to and compounding state failure are many and varied, including civil war, ethnic violence or genocide, and predatory government and bureaucratic behaviour.

The 2012 Failed States Index – Interactive Map and Rankings

State failure comes in degrees and is often a function of both the collapse of state institutions and societal collapse. A strong state provides core guarantees to its citizens and others under its jurisdiction in the three interrelated realms of security, economics, and politics. A failed state cannot maintain a monopoly on the legitimate use of violence and minimize internal conflict. It cannot formulate or implement public policies to effectively build infrastructure and deliver services or effective and equitable economic policies.

failed states index definition

In addition, it cannot provide for the representation and political empowerment of its citizens or protect civil liberties and fundamental human rights.

Thus, state failure manifests itself when a state can no longer deliver physical security, a productive economic environment, and a stable political system for its people.

The total collapse of the state marks the final, extreme phase of state failure, and very few states can be described as completely failed or collapsed. Yet, research demonstrates that many states suffer from various degrees of weakness and are therefore potential candidates for failure. Weak states were failing with increasing frequency, most of them in Africa but also a handful in Asia and the Middle Eastand failed states are known to be hospitable to and to harbour dangerous nonstate actors such as warlords and groups that commit terrorist acts.

For example, at the end of the 20th century, Somalia descended into state collapse under rival warlords, and Afghanistan, a failed state under the Taliban regime, harboured the terrorist group al-Qaeda.

Furthermore, state failure poses pressing humanitarian issues and possible emergency relief and state-building responsibilities for the international community. Consequently, understanding the dynamics of state failure and strengthening weak nation-states in the developing world assumed new urgency.

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Fragile States Index

Academia - What are failed states and why do they fail? Is seizing political control of failed states a viable remedy for containing threats coming from failed states?Ranking is based on the sum of scores for 12 indicators see below. The index's ranks are based on twelve indicators of state vulnerability, grouped by category: Cohesion, Economic, Political, Social.

Scores are obtained via a process involving content analysis, quantitative data, and qualitative review. In the content analysis phase, millions of documents from overEnglish-language or translated sources social media are excluded [4] are scanned and filtered through the Fund for Peace's Conflict Assessment Systems Tool CASTwhich utilizes specific filters and search parameters to sort data based on Boolean phrases linked to indicators, and assigns scores based on algorithms.

Considered together in the index, the indicators are a way of assessing a state's vulnerability to collapse or conflict, ranking states on a spectrum of categories labeled sustainablestablewarningand alert. Within each bracket, scores are also subdivided by severity.

Failed state

The score breakdown [6] is as follows:. All countries in the top three categories display features that make their societies and institutions vulnerable to failure.

However, the FSI is not intended as a tool to predict when states may experience violence or collapse, as it does not measure direction or pace of change. It is possible for a state sorted into the 'stable' zone to be deteriorating at a faster rate than those in the more fragile 'warning' or 'alert' zones, and could experience violence sooner.

Conversely, states in the red zone, though fragile, may exhibit positive signs of recovery or be deteriorating slowly, giving them time to adopt mitigating strategies. Twelve conflict risk indicators are used to measure the condition of a state at any given moment.

The indicators provide a snapshot in time that can be measured against other snapshots in a time series to determine whether conditions are improving or worsening. Years of controversy over the "failed state" terminology in the index's name contributed to change inwith a shift from the Failed States Index to the Fragile States Index.

failed states index definition

Critics had argued that the term established a false binary division, or false dichotomy, between states that were salvageable and those that were beyond recovery. Several academics and journalists have also criticized the FSI for a lack of utility and its measurement criteria.

Authors writing for The National Interest and The Washington Post have argued that the FSI sends a message that the solution to problems in the developing world is "more state-building", [11] [12] when in fact state-building could be viewed as a cause of instability or fragility.

Claire Leigh, writing for The Guardian incondemned the index as a "useless policy tool" which focused only on the symptoms of struggling states, ignoring causes or potential cures. Critics have also identified flaws with the FSI's measurement criteria, as well as the lack of transparency surrounding its base data analysis. On a monthly basis, International Crisis Group ICGa transnational non-governmental organization NGOpublishes CrisisWatch, a bulletin designed to inform readers about the development of state-based conflict across the globe.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Fragile States Index. For a list of countries, see List of countries by Fragile States Index. See also: Risk factors for genocide. The New Humanitarian. Retrieved Foreign Policy magazine. Archived from the original on The Fund for Peace".

The Guardian. The Washington Post.

African Failed States Index 2011 Part One

The National Interest. Political Violence a Glance. Foreign Policy.A failed state has several attributes. Common indicators include a state whose central government is so weak or ineffective that it has little practical control over much of its territory; non-provision of public services; widespread corruption and criminality; refugees and involuntary movement of populations; sharp economic decline. Sincethe index has been published annually by the United States think-tank Fund for Peace and the magazine Foreign Policy.

Change in rank from is shown in parentheses and the three table headings correspond to those used by the Fund for Peace and Foreign Policy magazine. Taiwan Republic of ChinaKosovoand Palestine were not included. This is the current list for All translations of failed states index. A windows pop-into of information full-content of Sensagent triggered by double-clicking any word on your webpage. Give contextual explanation and translation from your sites!

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failed states index definition

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As it has for the past 8 years, except for Argo. The preferential ballot somehow is just taylor made for passion choices. Where academy voters appreciate a well made, economical budgeted film.

The film you feel bad about not voting for. Call Me By Your Name 3. The Shape of WaterLead Actor 1. Margot RobbieSupporting Actor 1. Richard JenkinsSupporting Actress 1. Kristen Scott Thomas 4. Octavia SpencerBest Director 1. Guillermo Del Toro 3. Greta GerwigThe huge contenders this year are Dunkirk, The Shape of Water, and Call Me By Your Name. After his comments about the Hollywood Foreign Press, will Gary Oldman win the Golden Globe.

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What foreign language film will. Bird Was Regina King snubbed for "Ray".

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